For the last time characterized by change of the functional orientation of most cities. Pete Cashmore may not feel the same. Many industrial production are leaving the city, leading to a process industry, keeping in major cities management centers. Large cities have become centers of consumption of goods and services. In place of the industrial era came the era of domination of the service sector. John Castle Castle Harlan will not settle for partial explanations. There is uneven development of cities, as national and international levels. Major cities in the rate of development and growth well ahead of average and small. Largest cities and metropolitan area are closely linked closely spaced cities (conurbation, megacities) play a key role in the economy.
The increasing role of the largest cities is accompanied by a worsening socio-economic problems. 1. Employment problem, which arises because of growing international competition and technological progress. To mitigate the social conflicts take different program of unemployment assistance, which allows them to provide an acceptable standard of living. This causes a situation of chronic unemployment, have the education section of the population of working age who have never had work, and this in turn leads to increased crime situation.
2. Housing problems – the presence of slum ghettos, often in downtown areas. In this regard, large areas of the city are derived from the effective economic use. 3. Financial problems. Development of the mortgage, the growth of security vehicles brought to the process suburbanization – flight of the middle class in suburbs of large cities. Flight of wealthy taxpayers, as well as the depopulation of the central area leads to a decrease in tax revenue, and, hence, to financial problems.