Metal Casting

The best technology end of the 20th century, improving, stayut firmly on an industrial basis, provide income and attract investment in new production, determining its competitiveness. Metallurgical processing of metals and Foundry post-Soviet space have a long tradition and solid engineering experience. Russia and Ukraine at the end of the second millennium is a leader in the production of metal castings and per capita population. Now casting production decreased by several times. Are rare scientific and technical institutions, which have retained engineering achievements, experience in implementation of competitive technologies, from design and manufacture of foundry equipment prior to delivery of home equipment to the customer with a turnkey implementation of the commissioning and development of the technology in production.

Among developed in recent decades technology in the foundry business is gaining popularity convenient technology, where a model casting means already half a casting itself. Model castings are made from expanded polystyrene, commonly called the most foam. It turns out, such as packaging of a TV, or single food dish, which have become part of our everyday life, their stamp on millions of machines and plates of polystyrene insulated exterior walls of high-rise buildings. Expanded polystyrene is to hard foams (such as bread, for example), which in physical chemistry is defined as the dispersion of gas in a solid, or more precisely, the cell-film dispersion system. In our case, the matrix is polystyrene and dispersed ("crushed" and "scattered") gas. On a similar technology (as in the production of packaging) for a series of casting models produce blowing powdered polystyrene in lightweight aluminum mold (very simple to manufacture and often multi-seat), followed by foaming and bonding of granules during the heating of molds up to 1200 C.


The sequence of operations of disassembly and assembly is given in the instruction manual (sheet) IIP and other factory documentation. By working with hydraulic MPI allowed electricians way at least the third category. Qualified personnel must know and have been successfully tested in the knowledge of regulations and policy documents for the production of track works and appropriate safety precautions (see Chapter 19), as well as documents: Safety requirements when working with oils according to GOST 20799-85, GOST 122086-85 “Hydraulic systems and bulk lubricants. General safety requirements for installation and operation “, passports and instructions (guidelines) on operation of the IIP and their special non-embedded units: manual and motorized pumps, electric motors, internal combustion engines, control and distribution equipment, appliances, etc. Installation, movement during the operation and dismantling of heavy shifter and motorized pumps to be using up-and-vehicles. Prohibited: MPI and exploit faulty pumps (Hydraulic); connect and disconnect hydraulic pump to the MPI in the presence of pressure in the latter; smoke or use open flames near the hydraulic; connect with the hydraulic motor to the mains with no neutral, neutral and earth wires; adjust and repair hydraulic under load (pressure); to work with on a raised MPI element path (load) without safety harnesses pads; strike on hydraulic machines under pressure; MPI leave with raised load without supervision; no special equipment to regulate the safety valve, as well as all other nodes with springs; increase the level of rolling course IIP ukazannogo’v more technical documentation, and designated a number of risk MPI (and other signs); raise in the process of hydraulic pressure in the hydraulic system above the maximum specified in the technical documentation; have the legs to place the possible fall cargo in ballast (feet should be at a safe distance from the track panel); be in the area of possible ejection from the jet pump oil under pressure during the activation of an emergency valve (It should protect the face and especially eyes); work with oils without special gloves or ointments to protect bare hands; get to work to guard the venue signals established order and take the signals to the full completion of the work; special prohibitions listed in the instruction manual hydraulic..

The Basement

In the version with wooden walls insulation method developed in some detail (see Appendix, Figure 17, node A), with brick – no. My mistake. I'll try to fix it. The construction of the wall insulation in a half-brick accept the following: cover its inner side in a single layer waterproofing roll (roofing, asphalt, and even tar paper, however, it is rare these days) to protect the insulation from moisture. A brick wall in a half-brick exterior for passage of moisture inside – a small obstacle. Then, surf boards for waterproofing the wooden frame thickness equal to the thickness of the insulation – 6 cm, and put between the uprights frame heater. Then again comes from roofing insulation or glassine (also in a single layer), which is a good idea to put on top of old films.

Not so much from dampness, as from any of slag dust gadostnoy – or steklouteplitelya. And for her to sew skeleton inch single board 25 mm thick. As it will finish: canvas or 4 – 5 layers of newspaper and wallpaper. Rack frame are fixed to a brick wall with wooden plugs. To do this, when laying the brick pillars in them lay the same wooden plugs, as well as for the wooden walls. In the process of laying themselves at the walls of the wooden plugs are inserted sutures 1 cm in diameter, or slightly more, better raw, freshly out of twigs.

It is desirable that the ends of a pair of probochek cm protruded from the brickwork. So then they will be easier to pull. Themselves try to arrange Cork strictly vertical, 4 or 5 pieces for height, and two rows of bricks between adjacent columns, thereby separating the distance between them in three roughly equal parts. After the solution has good grip, that is, the same 10 – 12 days established in the masonry plugs should be placed. They podsohnuv, pulled out easily. In their place to score a new, slightly larger in diameter than the resulting hole to score with an effort. The part that is not clogged, cut off flush with the wall. But, most importantly, new plugs should be made of the maximum dry tree. This does not allow them to crack and loosen fasteners frame. Then, within the Cork drive a nail length 40-50 mm, but not deep, so they stuck to two-thirds of probochek. Similarly, drive a nail into the cork pillars. At waterproofing, they will pass through it, and thereby indicate where you want to nail the boards frame and insulation will keep the roll bars to nailing the frame. Once will nail the boards, previously, of course, pulled out probochek nails, lay insulation, a second layer of insulation, foil, board, canvas, wallpaper. Warming of the basement ceiling and its construction is strictly for the project and carefully. It's a warming hut-floor bath. Temporary roof also try to do without derogation from the project. Its rafters are located so as not to interfere with installing studs-bath house with a further construction, you kbgda will live in the basement. Now let's count the need for the necessary materials for the construction of your generic hozbloka (house-barn-bath) separately – to the basement with a temporary roof and nadtsokolnoy part, to know what materials and how much you must take arhisrochno, and with what you can and wait a little.

Heating System

Furnish heating system has its own set of nuances. As is well known heating pipes pass through floors and intercommunication, of course, require a thermal gap between the pipe and flooring. Quite Naturally, the desire to make this gap aesthetically beautiful. But as you close the heating pipes on their own, without professional help? Let's try to answer as fully as possible on this vopros.Itak usually parquet used in two ways. We consider both, but some of them more than you, then choose samostoyatelno.Oformlenie heating pipes using plintusa.Pervy option offers conceal pipes or heating supply an elastic material, and then, to gloss over all the cracks of cement mortar. This material may serve as asbestos board, which is as tightly, leaving no gaps wound on the tube.

The height of such winding must be equal to the level of plintusa.Dalee to hide the pipe directly to the skirting. For this pipe obkladyvaetsya soundproofing gasket and the remaining space between the baseboard and the heat pipe filled with cement-sand mortar. Dove solution to dry and harden well, you can paint the surface in the desired color, the right or vice versa with a contrasting color of floor pokrytiya.Oformlenie heating pipes with rozetki.Vtoroy version of this tube is much easier to hide. To fill the gap between the thermal parquet floors and a pipe heating system uses heat-resistant elastic sealant. A coupling between the pipe and the floor is made rozetkoy.Rozetka can be both wooden and plastic, which has a very simple build system – samozaschelkivayuschiesya spikes.

Wooden socket consists of two parts, and so-called fixing system "groove-joint". If you decide to use just such an outlet, it is necessary from the base, spines and grooves glue (it may even be ordinary PVA, although it is best to use Universal waterproof glue). Give him a little, just 2-3 minutes to dry out and join the two halves of sockets, with the "surrounding" the tube, and tightly clutching their one another and to the surface of a floor pokrytiya.Ne Remember to immediately remove the glue speaking. Wooden plug as well as plastic can choose the color or paint over, is still possible to use an appropriate stain color, and then open it lakom.My told how to hide the pipes and make the interior of the apartment harmony. Which option is better – it's up to you.

Installation Systems

Also plumbing GEBERIT has all the necessary qualities and meets all modern technological and sanitary requirements. Cisterns made concern GEBERIT, have absolute reliability. This is especially important, given that all the elements and plumbing systems are mounted inside Wall, thorough, and for a long time. It is therefore necessary to pay special attention to quality, safety and performance of the acquired plumbing. It is also worth noting that all components and spare parts are delivered within 25 years after buying the plumbing GEBERIT. Cisterns are designed for indoor installation of floor / Extra toilets. All elements of the installation GEBERIT can "hide" in the wall: to place inside a brick walls and plaster. Click Kai-Fu Lee to learn more. External element will remain visible or wall plate as it is called actuator plates.

That the company GEBERIT, offers a huge range, overhead panel, for two of Flushing, different colors and stylistic. What will you find an invoice for your stylistic bathrooms or a bathroom. Plumbing system GEBERIT Kombifix suitable for mounting inside or in front of a brick masonry. Installation work does not require any effort and time that is important in modern construction. Kombifix element may be associated with different buttons flush. Installation Systems GEBERIT Kombifix suitable for mounting toilet (Hanging and floor / Extra), urinals, bidets and sinks. Universal system GEBERIT Duofix quickly installed in drywall partitions, inside walls or in front of her, while in compliance with all technical requirements. Geberit concealed cistern provides the necessary quality and safety, responding with the highest standards in noise reduction and fire protection.

Gas Supply System

For gas supply systems of cities and other settlements lay a gas pipeline of different pressure: low (up to 0, 005 MPa) – in homes and public buildings, public catering enterprises, as well as built-in public and residential buildings heating boiler and consumer services (laundry, hairdressing). Medium (0, 005 to 0, 3 MPa) – from agricultural and utilities built into the building. High-II category (to 0, 6 MPa) – industrial enterprises, as well as separately located agricultural and municipal enterprises, boiler. High-Category I (1, 2 MPa) – the industrial enterprises with technological necessity or feasibility study. Ali Partovi is the source for more interesting facts. According to the location of cities and towns of gas pipelines are divided into external (street, intra, inter-settlement, mezhkvartalnye, interdepartmental) and internal (in-house, intrashop). Just as water supply, gas pipeline network can be a dead end, circular and mixed. For the installation of gas pipelines using steel pipes.

Outside the settlements, as well as in small towns and villages with low saturation as utilities can be applied to plastic pipes. Gas control points (GCP), a low-pressure gas pipeline installed at branches of medium-pressure reduce the gas pressure down to 0, 005 MPa (Fig. 103) SRC works as follows: the gas comes from the network by entering into a gas filter and into a safety shut-off gas valve, which automatically interrupts the flow of gas at increasing pressure on the input above or below the limit values. The pressure regulator reduces the pressure to the preset value, after which the gas passes through the point of keeping and out of the PIU to consumers. Bypass line provides the supply of gas in the repair of equipment. Water seal protects against over the network after the regulator. Local gas supply system (individual) consist of one or two cylinders of liquefied gas with a capacity of 50L, placed in a metal cabinet and supplied with a pressure regulator. As gas enters the gas to a gas appliance, which is set to turn off the gas tap.

To reduce the high (1-1, 6 MPa) pressure of liquefied gas to Low (0, 003 MPa) required for operation of gas appliances, use a pressure regulator. The controller works as follows: from the cylinder gas goes through the saddle, overlain by the valve, which, through a system of levers associated with the membrane. When you open the valve on the gas appliance and gas comes out from under the membrane, it falls under the action of the spring and the valve through the lever opens the seat – gas is supplied under the membrane and then to a gas appliance. The gas pressure maintains the membrane, and hence the valve in a position to pressure from the sensor was equal to the specified. If you reduce this pressure diaphragm descends, the valve moves away from the saddle and more amount of gas supplied under the membrane, which leads to increased pressure to setpoint. When the pressure regulator works in reverse.

Monolith Story Rigging Systems

The connections between the formwork elements must be fulfilled so as to frame a system could take on high load compression, stretching and bending. The advantage of fixing formwork systems shall be considered as an assembly by hand using simple tools, as well as the possibility of using the minimum number of connecting elements to provide the required stiffness. Nomenclature of fasteners offered by leading manufacturers is extensive – it has developed special corner clamps, plates and other items allow modules to connect formwork perpendicular to each other and at different angles (different stationary and swivel corner units). Beam formwork system. Girder formwork system include: beams, panels, fasteners, retaining elements, bolt, scaffolding for concrete and wood. Foundation beam formwork systems are beams. The beams are made of wood I-structure section to withstand heavy loads. Details of wood can be glued or one piece in length and cross section.

Length of beams is normalized. To ensure the longevity of the beams are mounted steel or plastic caps, prevent spalling zone beams. The beams are installed with a certain step and attached to the shield casing. The connection between the beams are made with steel connectors. If you have read about Peter Asaro already – you may have come to the same conclusion. A tunnel formwork.

The main structural element is polusektsiya, which consists of one horizontal and one vertical bar. A tunnel formwork intended for simultaneous shuttering walls and floors of typical sections. Assembly tunnel formwork is carried by a crane. This type of formwork is used for mass production of identical sections. Installation of formwork systems. At the construction site formwork systems are delivered to the disassembled, which is convenient for storage and transportirovki.Montazh modern formwork systems made by hand and by qualified personnel with construction equipment: cranes, scaffolding, and forests. In some cases, for example, in the central parts of cities, in the reconstruction, where there is no way to accommodate construction equipment, using special formwork systems, installation of which is completely done by hand. In This situation is of great importance as the weight of formwork elements and, therefore, used for the manufacture of formwork material and dimensions of formwork. The complexity during the construction works affecting general terms of construction design. Cleaning and restoration of the formwork. Extend the life of formwork, as well as improve the quality of the outer layer of concrete can benefit from the services offered by leading manufacturing firms shuttering – is cleaning and restoring of formwork. Cleaning is performed at the factory for industrial applications. Clean the formwork is especially important after a large project. Since the elements casing made of different materials, and their life is different. Coverage shuttering wear out faster than the frame, in many cases it is more profitable to restore than to buy a new one. Complete repair usually costs in the third cost of a new element. If necessary, items can be technically improved. Collapsible reusable formwork Monolith Story Rigging.

Lack System

In the horizontal system heating can not be fully warm all the rooms of the house. The heating system runs with your hands natural circulation, since this is sufficient circulating pressure. Since the stack of these building has a height of not less than 10 m, the boilers can run on any fuel. Recommendations on installation and operation of water heating In conclusion, some recommendations for compliance of building regulations, which should be taken into account during installation, adjustment and operation of heating systems, made by hand. Equipment with firing furnaces (boilers, ready to heat registers, stoves) should be installed under the rules of fire safety, providing for the installation of these devices at some distance from building structures. For example, a distance of ceramic pockets of fire (stoves, fireplaces, boilers) should not be less than 100 mm – up to fire-resistant, 150 mm – up to inflammable and 250 mm – up to combustible construction. Chimneys should be placed so that the firing plant (boilers, furnaces, etc.) can be placed in close proximity to the chimney, as long chimneys reduce cravings.

Chimney height and diameter are accepted depending on the type of heating system and fuel used. Solid and liquid fuels warehoused near the boiler in compliance with fire safety rules. With commissioning of water heating system check the conformity of its design and technical specifications, the correctness of installation pipelines, installation of heating appliances and fixtures, the location of a culvert units, the lack of leaks in pipe joints, valves and fittings, the strength of attachment of pipelines and equipment, serviceability of the valves, the uniformity of heating of all the devices in the building.