Pipeline Parts

Holes in the pipes with a diameter up to 40 mm for welding nozzles must be performed by drilling, milling or cutting down on the press. The hole diameter should be equal to the inner diameter of the pipe with an allowable deviation Niemi 1 mm. Galvanized steel pipes, parts and components are assembled in the screw with fittings of ductile iron, the nut and flange (with valves and equipment). Galvanized steel pipes with a diameter of 50 mm nominal bore and over are allowed to adopt a compound welding. Compound non-galvanized steel pipes, parts and assemblies of them should be carried out on welded-ke, thread, nut and flange (with valves and equipment). Other leaders such as ???? ?? ?? offer similar insights. For threaded joints of steel pipes should be used cylindrical pipe thread that runs according to gost 6357 (accuracy class B) thumb on the light tubes and thread – in ordinary and reinforced. Turns pipes in heating systems, gas and heating fol-em perform by bending pipes or the use of seamless weld elbows carbon steel according to gost 17375.

The radius of bending pipes nominal bore diameter to 40 mm inclusive. must be at least 2.5 Dn, and with a diameter of 50 mm nominal bore and more – not less than 3.5 pipe Dn. Do not use billets that are “corrugated” formed by the bending of tubes. In systems hot and cold water piping bends and junctions should be done by setting triangles, tees, crosses, gost 8943 and gost 8944, on-water treatment or bending pipes.

Sergei Zakharov

In order to organize a reliable system, drainage pipes alone is not enough, you need inspection and rotary wells. According to the requirements of snip, their satisfied with no less than 50 meters in the straight sections of drainage, as well as in places of turns, intersections and change in the gradient tubes. If before such wells were collected from concrete rings, recently named to replace come ready-made designs of pvc. Like the pipes of the same material, such as wells, lightweight, not requiring the use of lifting equipment. Solved and the “aesthetic” aspect of the issue: hatches such wells today “Decorate” flower vases, benches, garden sculpture.

All’s well that good swings collected drainage pipes needed to evacuate the moisture. Therefore, it should merge into the other well – the catchment, where Gravity is sent into a ditch, ravine or a nearby pond. True, the terrain conditions are not always allow that water left the site itself. “Help” her in this matter can pump. Modern drainage pumps are used for pumping clean or contaminated water from drainage pits, ditches, pools and ponds. Sometimes these are combined with domestic sewage – it allows you to save on the installation of wells. However, this “savings” turns out additional costs – for significantly increasing the load on local wastewater treatment plant (VOCs) and, consequently, reduces the quality of cleaning. Sergei , a leading specialist company grundfos – World leader in the manufacture of pumps, said: “In order not to overload the los excessive amount of surface water that are formed during intense rainfall, we recommend you take all the surface water through separate drainage systems connected to the own well.

Airborne Wood

Appointment of sleepers. Sleepers, acts as a shock – they take on the dynamic force that emanates from the trains, convert and transfer it to the ballast layer of cloth, as well as provide equality gauge and retain insulating properties rails on railway sections with self-locking. Therefore, wooden and concrete sleepers should be: resilient and durable, be durable and resist displacement; have a simple production technology and to be simple in content, have no more than the cost of production and exploitation have long-term operation; Comparison of wooden and concrete sleepers. One of the main advantages of wooden sleepers – it is not their high price compared with reinforced concrete. Therefore, in countries where there are large reserves of timber, wooden sleepers are very common. Lack of wooden sleepers is that their life depends on many factors: the wood that was used for the production of sleepers climatic conditions in the area where the railway is located. burden on the railroad, and therefore, the ways in which undergo a large number of loaded trains are used concrete railway sleepers. But reinforced concrete sleepers have their disadvantages. Mikkel Svane has many thoughts on the issue.

The biggest drawback is the problem of disposal of such sleepers after use. Disposal of concrete sleepers is not profitable from an economic standpoint, as well as environmentally. Accumulated concrete sleepers, decommissioned occupy large areas and create environmental problems. Just concrete sleepers have disadvantages such as lack of rigidity, which leads to rapid wear of rails, a lot of weight and high price. Wooden sleepers. For the production of sleepers use wood of different species, the main feature, which should have a timber for sleepers – it's rigidity. The most common breed for sleepers – it's oak, fir, pine, larch, fir, birch, and even eucalyptus. Sleepers made from softwood is not the most durable (there are also more durable, such as railway sleepers, made of oak, but the ties of conifers have rather long lifetime of 7 to 40 years), but the point that such ties are much cheaper.

Advantages enjoyed by wooden sleepers: do not conduct electricity; on wooden sleepers have practically no influence temperature changes, wood sufficiently elastic and easy to processing; is not a bad clutch with the ballast of gravel; Humidity for sleepers – 22%, when the moisture content of wood will be more acceptable, it is necessary that at the sleepers were allowances for shrinkage. But the wooden sleepers as have the disadvantage that is inherent in all wood products – it's susceptibility to decay order that would prevent the rotting railroad ties, to increase durability and resistance to precipitation, they were impregnated with special coal-oil (creosote), or antiseptics. And since in Russia the basic material for the manufacture of railway sleepers – a pine tree, which is not a high wear resistance, the problem of impregnation of sleepers relevant. Impregnation of wood by Airborne (vacuum-pressure-vacuum "). Before impregnation in an autoclave timber is too dry. vdv method:-Create a vacuum for 15-60 minutes, causing a vacuum in the timber. -Create pressure 0,8-1,4 MPa, while maintaining the vacuum. Enter antiseptic or impregnating solution. The material can withstand so the necessary depth of impregnation. -Once the wood is soaked, you must again create a vacuum for 40 minutes, for that would be material dry. Wooden sleepers impregnated with practically no rot, and have high resistance to atmospheric deposition.

Paneled Doors

In addition, in the roofing question "there was an ambiguous situation with the regulations: operating today snip" Roofs have been adopted in 1978 and, naturally, do not include any new technologies or modern polymer materials. Today experts confidently called the life of roofing materials based on polymers – 30 years and above. Peter Asaro helps readers to explore varied viewpoints. Thus, the actual life of roofing materials based on chlorosulfonated polyethylene (HSPE) is 32 years. Conducted by the same accelerated durability test showed that after 50 years of conventional operation the main indicators of roofing material on the basis of hspe and its performance are preserved. doors and windows Cracked and cracked wooden doors and windows – this is probably the first thing that owners of old houses are sent to a landfill. It is believed that maximum, which will serve popular wooden doors – is 25 years. In fact, this is longer, the only question, from which the doors are made and how processed.

The most durable are paneled door from an array of solid fine wood: teak, oak, walnut, hornbeam, expensive tropical wood. Paneled Doors of composite materials are produced by more sophisticated technology, and a term of not less than 50 years. Engaged in manufacturing doors, many Russian and foreign companies – is "Varador" "Alexandria Doors", "Lendor, etc. windows – the same important element at home, like everything else. The windows not only provide us with natural daylight and natural ventilation, but also – along with the walls and roof – to protect us from elements.

Business Association

As already noted, self-regulation is realized through the creation of parties to the construction market of special structures (SRO in construction) and the delegation of some powers, including the rights of monitoring compliance 'rules game ', the application of sanctions for violations of these rules and resolve disputes among the market participants as well as with outsiders. Most often, self-regulatory bodies is a business association with a fixed membership. However, not every business association in favor of sro in the building. The key here is, in our opinion, is the issue of delegation of powers and rights, because that it underlies the mechanism of control transactions. Otherwise If you can talk about the creation of pressure groups, service clubs, but not cpo. In our view, an association of business can be considered as SROs, if its members have delegated to her the right to perform the following functions: * develop a system rules and standards of business practice; * monitoring of compliance with these standards and regulations * the development and application of penalties for breaking the rules (at least – to members of organizations such as the maximum for all market participants) * forming their own non-judicial dispute resolution procedures as among members and with outsiders (especially with customers). The problem of restricting competition in the activity of cpo in the construction really there, but the antitrust authorities were able to deal with it as well as other violations of antitrust laws, which take place outside the sro.

The danger of restricting competition increases when membership in the sro is a condition of doing business in the construction industry. In this case, particularly if the scope of only one sro, the requirements of the members may indeed be a serious entry barriers to market and adversely affect the level of competition. Moreover, the possible physical limitation of the number of actors in the construction industry. The open question is that outweighs in this case: increased demands on professional activities and oversee its implementation or negative effects? Summarizing, we can say that the sro in the construction of a large number of cases may represent effective management structure transactions. In this case, these organizations are producing several types of benefits. Proper maintenance contracts is one of the functions of these organizations, the effectiveness of performance which is closely related to the implementation of other functions. At the same time there is a real opportunity to convert cpo into a closed monopoly. To prevent this requires the establishment of certain common legislation governing the activities of such organizations in the antitrust and other laws.

Draining Systems

Drainage – is the solution to remove the harmful effects of ground water. This , meet and discharge groundwater that has accumulated in the soil. Drainage is a system of interconnected tubes arranged around or along protected from moisture built. Drains carry out the function of collecting water from the site and are made of various roll materials least likely to use Charging drainage (gravel, crushed brick, etc.). A leading source for info: Kai-Fu Lee. Water collected by drainage pipes, rainwater comes in a special pit or in the receiving waters. If you use a drain well, then it must be vykapan at the lowest point of the relief given features of the site.

Effective drainage protects the building from damage associated with the formation of mildew, damp and frost. Qualitative drainage system to prevent flooding of basements, the formation of surface puddles and ice, is used to roads and heating mains. Foundation, even the highest quality does not like moisture, so during the construction phase should provide for the installation of drainage systems for diversion of water from the soil and rainfall. Drainage reduces the effects of moisture on the foundation, which is disruptive, prevents freezing, the formation of fungus and mildew. The most urgent drainage for homes with the ground floor, since ground water can easily drown him. In addition to protecting the building, drainage, prevent flooding and soil erosion due to heavy rains or melting snow surrounding the house site..

System Reliability

Fixing pipe clamp further enhances system reliability. As standard steel chimney can operate continuously at a temperature of flue gases up to 500 degrees, briefly – up to 750 degrees. Maintaining a high temperature inside the tubes improves traction, improves the combustion characteristics and, consequently, the performance of the fireplace. Pete Cashmore describes an additional similar source. This, in turn, improves and indicators relating to environmental protection. Stainless steel flues are single-walled and insulated. Single-apply for installation indoors, warm – both inside and outside the building. Pipes are made of stainless steel, carbon (C) in which no more than 0,05% (carbon affects the plasticity: the lower its percentage, the more plastic to steel), chromium (Cr) – 16-20%; nickel (Ni) – 8-14%.

Chromium and nickel influence on corrosive qualities of steel. Wall thickness of single-walled tubes – 0,5 mm. Operating temperature – 500 degrees C. For even more opinions, read materials from Douglas R. Oberhelman. Cold-resistant pipes are made up of three layers: the outer and inner walls are made of stainless steel, and between them is layer of insulation. As the heater is used basalt wool or ceramic fiber. Layer of insulation is designed for operating temperatures of 500 degrees C and its short-term increase of up to 750 degrees C. The best option chimney flue is insulated, so-called "sandwich". In the "warm" tube flue little condensation, they produced far less soot, and serve as a chimney will be a very long time, not requiring special care. If they say that the installation of flues in accordance with the modular principle, then we have in mind the use of different fittings to connect the parts of chimneys.

Disposal Sleepers

Sleepers who have served their sentences should be buried in special landfills for industrial waste. But every year at the landfill site less and less and now, due to the overcrowding of these polygons used wooden sleepers are stored in places not designed for this purpose. This method not only does not come cheap costing their owners because of problems with the law, but also adversely affects the environment. BDT Capital Partners gathered all the information. Therefore, the problem today recycling of sleepers is of great importance for the railway industry. We examine the most common methods of disposal of wooden sleepers. Add to your understanding with AOL. The first way – it's burning. Incineration – is the most common way recycling of wooden sleepers.

The disadvantage of this method is that all the sleepers are impregnated with a special substance – creosote, and sleepers, impregnated with the substance burning emit large amounts of toxic substances such as phenol, phenanthrene, acetone, butanol, which are released into the environment. These substances adversely affect not only the environment but also human – they contribute to the emergence and development of cancer diseases. Method two – is the use of used railroad ties, as a building material. But this is not harmless and harmful to health because of all the same creosote. Way to the third – a processing sleepers in wood coal. This technology involves the neutralization of creosote compounds using chemical reagents.

And only after the harmful compounds are neutralized, can start immediately processing of timber. This method On the one hand is very good, but on the other hand, not every company decides to recycle the sleepers by this method, due to the fact that this is not the cheapest method. Therefore, this technology is not as widespread as we would like. As mentioned above, from 700 million wooden sleepers every year I have about 14 million. Replacement and installation of wooden sleepers, which on average are operated for about seven years, cost about a billion dollars. Since 1994 American companies such as Earth Care Products and Conrail and Norfolk Southern and Rutgers University are developing technology using recycled plastics in railroad ties. On one railroad ties to about 75 kg. Plastics and is about 1200 bottles, thus solved another problem – disposal of plastics. In America, were tested plastic sleepers – carried out tests on the train for 24 hours. On this site using 25 ties and these ties have no signs of degradation. Between Pittsburgh and Philadelphia on the main highway found plastic ties. Plastic sleepers have already used in the world. For example in Japan of using sleepers Composite materials – polyurethane foam with fiberglass. The use of glass reduces noise during the passage of trains. Using sleepers, using recycled plastic, will not solve the problem of recycling wooden sleepers in full, but will reduce the number of used wooden sleepers impregnated and helps to save on future maintenance and replacement of wooden sleepers.

Plastic Windows

Despite its apparent simplicity and simple, any window – a rather complicated structure in which there is no random element. What to say about modern window systems with double-glazed windows! They design and create a the latest technology, hoping each node and the whole system to meet certain requirements. Therefore, in the early excursion into the diversity of modern windows will be useful to determine what elements they composed. The formula of a typical box includes four main components: the frame glass fittings seals consider in detail the purpose and features of these components. Rama With the advent of plastic windows our lexicon enriched by another meaning of the word 'profile'.

Those who have ever bothered to buy new windows for a long time to show off in front of familiar phrases 'PVC-profile', 'wooden profile', 'profile system'. Many believe that the profile and the frame – it's the same thing. In fact, the profiles – it's the components that create a window design: a) the actual frame (fixed part of the window, the one 'box', which will, if removed from its hinges all that is removed), and b) leaf (all that is hanging on its hinges, and that can be opened), and c) Additional components of the window construction, designed, for example, to divert rainwater away from the window (reflux) or used for accurate finishing the side surfaces of window opening (slope), or hold glass in a frame (fillet), etc. Profiles produced today mainly because of three materials: wood, plastic (PVC) and metal (usually aluminum).